## Tuesday, October 25, 2016

### The Law of Definite Composition

Looking ahead to chemical reactions, an important concept to understand is The Law of Definite Composition. To understand this, it is a good idea to begin by reviewing Dalton's Atomic Theory (the parts he got right!):

Dalton noticed that all compounds have something in common. No matter how large or small the sample, the ratio of the masses of the elements in the compound is always the same. Dalton's theory was developed based on this observation.

Dalton proposed the theory that all matter is made up of individual particles called atoms which cannot be divided.
• All elements are composed of atoms.
• All atoms of the same element have the same mass, and atoms of different elements have different masses.
• Compounds contain atoms of more than one element.
• In a particular compound, atoms of different elements always combine in the same ratios.
Dalton compared the mass ratios of elements when they reacted. He found that (for instance) no matter how much sodium he started with, if the mass of the chlorine didn't change, the exact same amount of sodium would be used up in the reaction.

So suppose he had sixty grams of sodium but only needed one mole (22.990 grams)? After the reaction was complete, he would have left over sodium. In fact, he would have exactly 37.01 grams of sodium left over.

The reason behind this is that compounds form in fixed, set ratios. Salt is always in a ratio of one atom of sodium to one atom of chlorine (1:1 ratio of atoms), or 22.99 grams of sodium (Na) to 35.453 grams of chlorine (Cl). Water is always in a ration of two hydrogen (H) atoms to one oxygen (O) atom (2:1 ratio of atoms). Every compound is made up of a fixed, specific ratio of the atoms that make it up. And because atoms of any element have the same atomic mass, compounds form in not only fixed ratios of the number of atoms, but also in fixed ratios of masses.

This Law of Definite Composition (which, by the way has exceptions) can be cited as evidence that supports the idea that some pure substances are combined of elements in a definite ratio.

The Law of Definite Composition means that, when a chemical reaction is going on, when one of the elements is used up, the reaction ends, and any portion of the other element that is left over is—well, it is left over.

## Tuesday, October 18, 2016

### Subatomic Particle Configuration

As understanding of atoms increased, different experiments resulted in the discovery of the particles that of which an atom is made. Thompson is credited with first realizing that the atom is made of particles, some negatively charged and some positively charged. Rutherford was credited with identifying that the positive charge is located within a central, relatively dense nucleus. Later, in 1932, James Chadwick designed an experiment to show that neutrally charged particles also existed in atoms—neutrons.

To summarize the development of atomic models, the modern atom is understood to be made up of subatomic particles.

Proton — a positively charged subatomic particle that is found in the nucleus of an atom.
Symbol: p+
Relative charge: +1
Relative mass: 1
Actual mass: 1.674 X 10^-24
Location: In the nucleus

Electron — a negatively charged subatomic particle is is found the the space outside the nucleus.
Symbol: e-
Relative charge: -1
Relative mass: 1/1836
Actual mass: 9.11 X 10^-28
Location: In distinct orbitals surrounding the nucleus

Neutron — a neutral subatomic particle that is found in the nucleus of an atom.
Symbol: n
Relative charge: 0
Relative mass: 1
Actual mass: 1.675 X 10^-24
Location: In the nucleus

From the information above, a few conclusions:
• Protons and neutrons are almost identical in mass.
• Electrons are about "1/2000" the mass of a proton. (closer to 1/1836)
• The neutron does not affect the charge of an atom. They just add mass.

It is the unique ratio of the combination of subatomic particles in different atoms that give each element its characteristics. Thought all elements are built out of the same subatomic particles—protons, neutrons, and electrons—the many, many different combinations possible result in the many, many different elements that can be observed in creation.

The basic classification system for elements is the periodic table. The rules that identify exactly what we call a sample of an element is based on the configuration of the atoms which make it up.

Atomic Number
The basic classification is based on the number of protons. The number of protons in an atom is called its atomic number. Atoms of different elements all have different numbers of protons, and thus, different atomic numbers. If an atom has one proton, it is hydrogen. If it has 12 it is carbon. No matter what else happens, the number of protons determine the atomic number, and the atomic number determines the type of atom.

Atomic Mass
Another very important difference among atoms is its mass. The mass number is the sum of the masses of all the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. Not all elements have equal numbers of protons and neutrons, so to find out how many neutrons are in an atom:

Number of neutrons = Mass Number - Atomic Number

For example, the Atomic Number of chlorine (Cl) is 17, and its Mass Number is 35.45. Subtracting, it becomes apparent that there are 18 neutrons (generally, you ignore the decimals in this process).

The mass number also tells us how many grams one mole of the elements' atoms would weigh. NOTE: Some elements do not exist as solo atoms—oxygen, chlorine, and others are always paired, so one mole of the gas will be two moles of the atoms. Looking at the periodic table, we can know how many grams of something would be needed in order to have one mole of it. Doing math, we can, therefore, calculate the mass of any fraction of a mole of any element. So 1/10 of a mole of sodium (Na, Mass Number = 22.99) would weigh 2.299 grams.

Isotopes
It is the number of protons in an atom that determine what element it is. But in some cases, it is possible to add an neutron to the nucleus, which will change its atomic weight. For instance, a neutron could be added to hydrogen, given it a mass of around 2, yet with only one proton, it would still be hydrogen, atomic number 1. Atoms with the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes. Isotopes of an element have the same atomic number, but different mass numbers because they have different numbers of neutrons.

Understanding just the three previous ideas, any substance can be classified and fit into the periodic table as either an element or an isotope of an element. Understanding these concepts opens the door to working with elements in vast and complex ways.

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Some definitions and content from:

Physical Science Concepts in Action, Pearson

## Saturday, October 15, 2016

### Atomic Theory

Understanding what things were made of goes back far into history. The ancient Greeks had ideas and debated as long ago as 2500 years.