Thursday, August 6, 2020

Phase Changes of Matter

Where are we going with this?
The point of this deck is to provide concepts,background information and examples related to the kinetic theory of matter. Using this model will help predict behaviors of substances within a variety of environments.

Phases (State) Changes of Matter
Why does it have two names?

As temperature changes, matter can change from one phase (state) to another.

Matter exists in five states: Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), Solid, Liquid, Gas, and Plasma, depending on the amount of thermal energy. Changing the thermal energy (temperature) can cause matter to change from one phase to another.

As kinetic energy increases (temperature goes up), matter will change from one phase to another. Likewise, as energy decreases (temperature goes down), matter will also change phase.

Naturally, most1 of the phase changes have names!

Melting: the process of changing from solid to liquid.

Freezing: the process of changing from liquid to solid.

Vaporization: the process of changing from liquid to gas at its boiling point.

Condensation: the process of changing from gas to liquid.

Sublimation: the process of changing from solid to gas.

Deposition: the process of changing from gas to solid.

Ionization: the process of changing from a gas to a plasma.

Recombination/deionization: the process of changing from plasma to gas.

For most substances (Hold that thought! We'll get back to this!) the changes in phase will happen at specific temperatures. These temperatures are known as the freezing/melting point and boiling point.

Bonus Phase Change!
Probably, "bonus" isn't the right word, but…

It is possible for liquids to become gases, even though the liquid never reaches the boiling point.

Water spilled on a table will eventually dry up, even though the air never reaches 100C around it. This is due to a process called evaporation.

Evaporation is the process that changes a substance from a liquid to a gas at temperatures below the substance's boiling point.

1By now, some of you (maybe) are asking, "Well what about that Bose-Einstein Condensate? What do you call it when something becomes that?"

When something becomes a BEC, you can say it underwent Bose condensation or Bose-Einstein condensation

 https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/458032/phase-change-into-bose-einstein-condensate

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Who doesn't love a table!

 From Solid Liquid Gas Plasma To Solid Melting Sublimation Liquid Freezing Condensation Gas Sublimation VaporisationorEvaporation DeionizationorRecombination Plasma Ionization

Let's try it this way!

Low Temp                                                                                                                High Temp
Low Kinetic Energy                                                                                                 High Kinetic Energy

Solid --- Melting ----> Liquid -- Vaporization/Evaporation --> Gas ---------- Ionization ------------> Plasma
Solid <--- Freezing --- Liquid <------ Condensation-------- Gas <-- Deionization/Recombination -- Plasma

Solid ----------------------------- Sublimation ----------------> Gas
Solid <-----------------------------Deposition ------------------- Gas