Saturday, October 3, 2020

Covalent Bonding

  General Chemistry Index

Where are we going with this? This page will give the ability to use laboratory observations and data to compare and contrast ionic, covalent, network, metallic, polar, and non-polar substances with respect to constituent particles, strength of bonds, melting and boiling points, and conductivity; provide examples of each type.

Covalent Bonding
When atoms bond… 

Covalent bonding occurs between two atoms and takes place within the electron orbitals such that full sets of orbitals can be created (octet rule). This usually takes place between two non-metals that are sharing electrons.

You can think of it as commingling valences…

So, some of the elements have most of the electrons in their valence set of orbitals, but they are not full. They are not empty enough to transfer electrons, ionic bonding isn't an option.

Compounds formed between many nonmetals create covalent bonds. In covalent bonding, the electrons of two atoms are shared.

This is covalent bonding…

When electronegativity differences are low (that is to say, when they have similar numbers of missing electrons in their valence orbitals), atoms will form molecules by sharing electrons.

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